door hem gevonden interessante beschrijving
van een historische trainingsmethode.
E.e.a. uitsluitend ter info.
(Maar laat dit jullie geenszins weerhouden van onderlinge
discussie erover. )
Citaat:Kikkuli: http://www.geocities.com/rapachi_99/horse2.html geeft een globale vertaling van de kleitabletten
The Kikkuli Method of Horse Training, Ann Nyland, 1993, is een wetenschappelijke publicatie van 212 paginas erover. Tis een verzamelaarsitem en ik heb het, nog, niet.
Samengevat uittreksel uit haar boek:
Kikkuli, 1,350 BC
Around 1345 B.C., Kikkuli, Horsemaster to the Hittite king Suppililiuma, recorded a war horse training regime. As a result of his method, the Hittites became a mighty power rivaling Egypt.
After murdering his brother to gain the throne, Suppililiuma set his heart upon Hittite supremacy. He started by buying large numbers of horses, and somehow acquired the services of a leading Mitannian horsemaster by the name of Kikkuli. Kikkuli 'defected' to the Hittites and trained their horses, turning them into superb war machines. As a result, Suppililiuma wiped Mitanni off the face of the earth. All we have of their incredible knowledge is the horse training text written by Kikkuli. It survives in cuneiform in four clay tablets, and is known today as "The Kikkuli Text".
Kikkuli obviously had difficulty getting the high-tech Mitannian concepts across in the Hittite language, for he frequently gives a term such as "Intervals" in his own language, followed by "this means" with an attempt to explain in Hittite. For example, "And 1/2 DANNA and 20 IKU he trots them. Thereupon 38 IKU he canters. One calls this 'sinisella auzameua'. One does it this way: The first time he canters 20 IKU. The second time he canters 7 IKU. One calls this 'two-heat canter'."(1 DANNA = 3.6 miles, 1 IKU = 250 yards.)
After Kikkuli's demise, the Hittites were at a loss to understand his techniques, for we have several Hittite horse-training tablets which have regressed substantially.
The Kikkuli Method is amazing from a modern equine physiology point of view. The Kikkuli Method uses Interval training, and makes much use of leading the horses (from chariots) at the gaits of trot, canter and gallop, before subjecting them to the weight bearing stress of a rider or driver.
The Kikkuli Text details a seven month training regime. Rest days are scheduled, but workouts sometimes number three a day. Kikkuli's Interval training program contained three stages. The first two stages develop strong legs and a strong cardiomuscular system, and the third stage develops neuromuscular conditioning. His workouts included brief recoveries to lower the heart rate partially. Even swimming is done in intervals of three or five repeats, with a rest in between.
After being worked in harness, the horses were brushed down and cooled out. Every workout includes a warm down period, and all workouts were carried out on a marked course. The horses were washed in warm water and rugged.
The Kikkuli Method identifies the precise moment in training when the horse has adapted, physically and psychologically, to its training. It also encompasses a four day period known as the "Culling Process" which allows performance potential to be estimated. The Culling Process also identifies horses prone to Chronic Respiratory Disease. From days 11-20, the horses are stabled, and cracks in the stable walls are blocked. This causes an increase in dust, fungal and ammonia levels which in turn identifies underlying respiratory disorders in a horse.
In 1991, the 3,300 year old, seven month method was duplicated at the University of New England, Australia. The results revealed that the Kikkuli Method enables horses to remain sound while becoming extremely fit. The Hittites needed very fit horses, as they had a war season much like we have a baseball season. The war zone was a four week march away, and the horses had to fight in battles all summer. One famous battle involved a 44 mile (70 km) march overnight before hard fighting all day.
Kikkuli also was careful to lay down the very times salt should be fed, and even malt as carbohydrate replacement. The horses were fed three to four times a day, and Kikkuli gives the exact measurement for each feeding. He did have a standard set feed, which is as follows:
(1 UPNU = 10 liters by volume). There were many variations of the above.
Sometimes the horses were fed pollard and pulled-up grass. Pollard was always fed in the meal after the swimming intervals.
Here are some examples of the workouts:
"And 1/2 DANNA 20 IKU he trots. Thereupon again 1/2 DANNA 20 IKU he canters, 5 intervals."
"And he trots 2 DANNA but canters at the 80 IKU marker. Again they canter, over 1 DANNA and 20 IKU. When he drives back they unhitch them."
"And 1 DANNA he trots, but he hard gallops at the 7 IKU marker. But when he drives back, they unhitch them."
"2 1/2 DANNA he trots, and canters at the 7 IKU marker. Then he drives again. And at the 10 IKU marker he canters."
The intervals came in the latter phase of training. In the initial phase, a single daily workout was repeated for several days. This was followed by another phase where a longer daily single workout was repeated for a number of days. For Days 23-32, the horses were led at a trot for 2 DANNA. By Days 111-120, the horses were led at the trot for 7 DANNA and cantered for 7 IKU. After this, the distances were decreased greatly but by then the interval training had started in earnest.
(Based an a translation by Ann Nyland, 1990)